Facts About Pakistan

by Mudassar Bashir

Basic Facts and General Information About Pakistan

  1. About Pakistan
  2. History
  3. Demographics X?
  4. Culture and Society X
  5. Geography X
  6. Climate X
  7. Government and Politics X
  8. Education X
  9. Economy X
  10. Food and Drinks X
  11. Sports X
  12. National Symbols of Pakistan X


About Pakistan


History of Pakistan

Demographics of Pakistan


Population of Pakistan

  • Pakistan is 5th Most Populous Country in the World.
  • Total population in Pakistan: 207,774,520 (Estimated, 2017 Census)
  • Largest (Most Populated) Cities:
    1. Karachi (15mn)
    2. Lahore (11mn)
    3. Faisalabad (3.2mn)
    4. Rawalpindi (2mn)
    5. Gujranwala (2mn)
    6. Peshawar (1.9mn)
    7. Multan (1.8mn)
    8. Hyderabad (1.7mn)
    9. Islamabad (1mn)
    10. Quetta (1mn)

Languages of Pakistan

  • Official Languages:
    • English
    • Urdu
  • Regional Languages & Ethnic groups:
    1. Punjabi
    2. Pashto
    3. Sindhi
    4. Balochi

Religions in Pakistan

  • Religions in Pakistan:
    1. Islam (official) 96.0%
    2. Hinduism 1.85%
    3. Christianity 1.6%
    4. Other Religions 0.6%

Culture and Society of Pakistan

  • Pakistan is a multi-ethnic country with numerous diverse cultures
  • Changing a city or just traveling for an hour in Pakistan is like changing a country, you can see a complete change in language, landscape & culture. Everything is so similar yet so different.
  • Contrary to common misconception, Pakistani Culture is NOT ARAB

Cultural Inheritance of Pakistan

  • Pakistan’s Arts and Culture are inherited from foreign invaders throughout its thousands years of history.
  • Mainly inherited from Indian, Persian, Afghan & Central Asian (Turkic) Cultures
  • Pakistani culture also have some influences of Middle Eastern, European, British & Tibetan Cultures

Religious Influence on Culture

  • Pakistan was created with one point agenda: “to provide its people with a way of life based on Islam”
  • Around 96% of people are Muslims by birth, so Islam has a strong influence on Pakistani culture, many traditions are molded with Islamic practices


  • Hospitality is one of the most important and common aspect of Pakistani Culture. People believe that guests as blessing from God
  • Wherever you go, they’ll welcome you, offer food & drinks, also invite you into their homes.


  • Pakistan has around 15 major Ethnic Groups, with different Physical Features, Historical Bloodlines & Traditions.
  • Each ethnicity has its own Language, Architecture, Dress, Food, Music and Dance


  • There are over 75 languages spoken in Pakistan, but Urdu and English are common all over Pakistan.
  • English is more common in Middle & Upper Classes living in Cities, except in Gilgit-Biltistan where it is also understood in remote areas

Geography of Pakistan

  • Pakistan is the 33rd Largest Country by Area
  • Total Area of Pakistan is 881,913 Square Kilometers (340,509 Square Miles)
  • Pakistan is consist of many geographically diverse landscapes, with Geographical Low Point of 0 meters at Sea Level to Geographical High Point of 8,611 meters at K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen)
  • Pakistan can be divided into following Six major Geographic Areas
    1. Mountain Ranges
        1. Himalaya Mountain Range
        2. Karakoram Mountain Range
        3. Hindu Kush Mountain Range
        4. Pamir Mountain Range
        5. Pir Panjal Mountain Range
        6. Margalla Hills
        7. Spin Ghar Range
        8. Sulaiman Mountain Range
        9. Kirthar Mountain Range
    2. Indus River Plain
    3. Sub-montane Plateau
      1. Pothohar Plateau
      2. Salt Range
    4. Balochistan Plateau
      1. Central Brahui Range
      2. Central Makran Range
      3. Makran Coast Range
      4. Toba Kakar Range
      5. Khawaja Amran Range
      6. Ras Koh Range
      7. Pab Range
      8. Chagai Hills
      9. Bugti Hills
    5. Deserts
      1. Thar Desert
      2. Cholistan Desert
      3. Kharan Desert
      4. Thal Desert
      5. Katpana Desert (Cold Desert)
    6. Coastline & Islands
      1. Beaches
      2. Indus River Delta
      3. Small Islands

Location of Pakistan

    • Pakistan is Located in North West part of the South Asian Subcontinent
    • Geographical Coordinates: 30.00°N 70.00°E
    • Borders of Pakistan:
      • India on the East, around 2050 km (1274 mi)
      • Afghanistan on the North West, around 2430 km (1510 mi)
      • Iran on the West, around 909 km (565 mi)
      • China on the North East, around 510 km (317 mi)
      • Arabian Sea on the South, about 1,050 km (650 mi) Long Coastline
      • Maritime (water) border with Oman

Climate of Pakistan

  • Climate of Pakistan is Temperate.
  • Due to diverse Geography, Temperature Variations are Extreme, both Seasonally and Daily
  • Climate is cold in northern areas due to High Altitude and Snow Covered Mountains
  • Southern areas of Pakistan are among hottest temperature areas of the world.
  • 53.7 °C (128.7 °F) was the Fourth Hottest Temperature recognized by World Meteorological Organization (WMO), noted on May 28, 2017 in Turbat City of Balochistan, Pakistan
  • Recorded Highest vs Lowest Temperature in Pakistan °C (°F): 53.7 (128.7) vs −34.0 (−29.2)
  • Occasional Dust Storms and Thunderstorms lower the temperature during Summer
  • Pakistan has 4 Major Seasons
    1. Winters: Cold, Foggy & Dry. December to Mid-February
    2. Spring: Pleasant Weather with Occasional Rainfall. Mid-February to April
    3. Summer:
      1. Dry & Hot 1st Half. May to Mid-July
      2. Hot & Humid 2nd Half due to Monsoon. Mid-July to September
    4. Autumn: Moderate weather with Autumn colors. October & November

Government and Politics of Pakistan

Governance System of Pakistan

  • Official Name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
  • Capital City: Islamabad
  • Governance System: Federal Parliamentary Constitutional Republic
  • Prominent Government Designations & Personalities
    • President (Symbolic Head of the State): Dr. Arif Alvi
    • Prime Minister (Actual Head of the State): Imran Khan
    • Chairman of the Senate (Can be Acting President): Sadiq Sanjrani
    • Speaker of the National Assembly (Can be Acting Prime Minister): Asad Qaiser
    • Chief Justice: Gulzar Ahmed
    • Chief of Army Staff (Considered as Most Powerful Position): Gen. Qamar Javed Bajwa
  • Legislature Parliament (2 Sections)
    • Upper House: Senate
    • Lower House: National Assembly
  • Administrative Units
    • Pakistan is Devided into 4 Provinces, 2 Autonomous Territories & 1 Federal Capital
    • Provinces are Further divided into Divisions, Districts and Sub-Districts (Called Tehsils)
    • Provinces of Pakistan
      1. Punjab
      2. Sindh
      3. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (also includes recently merged Federally Administered Tribal Area)
      4. Balochistan
    • Autonomous Territories of Pakistan
      1. Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Internally Independnent State having own Assembly & Prime Minister)
      2. Gilgit Baltistan (Similars Rights as a Province)

Electoral System of Pakistan

  • Types of Elected Governments
    • Federal Government
    • Provincial Governments
    • Local Governments
  • All citizens elder than 18 years can vote.
  • Members of National & Provincial Assemblies are elected directly for 5 years
  • Elected Members of National Assembly elect Prime Minister
  • Elected Members of Provincial Assembly elect Chief Minister
  • Elected Members of National & All Provincial Assemblies elect President
  • Elected Members of National & All Provincial Assemblies elect Members of Senate.
  • Election for Senate are based on Proportional Representational System to give equal representation to all provinces.
  • Elected Members of Senate elect their Chairman.
  • Local Government Elections are held separately in every province
  • In Local Government Elections, Citizens directly elect members for Village & City Councils
  • Elected Members of Village & City Councils elected their Chairmen (Mayors) as well as Members of District Council.

Prominent Political Parties in Pakistan

  • Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI)
  • Pakistan Muslim League – Nawaz (PML-N)
  • Pakistan People’s Party (PPP)
  • Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan (JI)
  • Awami National Party (ANP)
  • Pakistan Muslim League – Quaid-e-Azam (PML-Q)
  • Jamiat-e-Ulema-e-Islam – Fazal ur Rehman (JUI-F)
  • Muttahida Qaumi Movement Pakistan (MQM Pakistan)
  • Pak Sarzameen Party (PSP)

Educational Systems of Pakistan

Higher Education (University) & Diplomas similar to international standards. But there are 3 types of basic educational systems working in parallel in Pakistan

  • Traditional / Regular System
    • Primary School: 6 Years
    • Elementary / Middle School: 3 Years
    • High School: 2 Years
    • College / Intermediate Classes: 2 Years
    • Technical Diploma: 3 Years (Equivalent to 2 Years of Intermediate Classes)
  • Cambridge Educational System
    • Primary School: 7 Years
    • Elementary / Middle School: 3 Years
    • O Levels : 2 Years
    • A Levels: 2 Years
  • Religious Educational System
    • Nazra Quran (Learn to Read Holy Quran. Everyone gets this)
    • Hifz e Quran (Learn Holy Quran by Heart. Graduates are called Hafiz)
    • Qirat (Learn to Recite Holy Quran in beautiful accent. Graduates are called Qari)
    • Trajama tul Quran (Learn literal meanings of Holy Quran)
    • Tafseer ul Quran (Learn & understand context of Holy Quran)
    • Dora e Hadith (Learn about the Saying & Doings of Holy Prophet Muhmmad PBUH)
    • Shahda tul Aalmiya (Religious Scholar Equivalent to University Graduate, called Mufti or Aalim)

Economy of Pakistan

  • Pakistan is Considered a 3rd World Developing Country
  • Regional & Internal Conflicts like Wars, Political Instability has damaged Pakistan’s Economy very badly.
  • Pakistani Currency is very Week as compared to other Currencies of the World

Major Industries of Pakistan

  • Agriculture & Livestock
  • Manufacturing
    • Textiles and Apparel
    • Food Processing
    • Construction Materials
    • Paper Products
    • Fertilizer
    • Chemicals
    • Pharmaceuticals
  • Services
  • Mining
  • Fishing

Major Manufacturing Sectors of Pakistan

  • Textiles and Apparel
  • Food Processing
  • Construction Materials
  • Paper Products
  • Fertilizer
  • Chemicals
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Handicrafts

Agriculture & Livestock of Pakistan

  • Major Cash Crops of Pakistan are:
    • Cotton
    • Wheat
    • Sugarcane
    • Rice (the Famous Aromatic Basmati Rice)
    • Chickpeas
    • Corn
    • Mustard
    • Lentils
  • Fruits
    • Around 144 types of Fruits are produced in Pakistan
    • Most Common Fruits are: Apple, Mango, Orange, Grapes, Cherry, Banana, Strawberry, Apricot, Fig, Plum, Dates, Melon, Watermelon, Pear, Peach, Guava, Papaya, Tangerine, Lemon, Sweet Lime, Litchi, Mulberry, Pomegranate
  • Vegetables
    • More than 35 Types of vegetables are grown in Pakistan
    • Most Common Vegetables are: Okra, Onion, Potato, Peas, Chilies, Tomato, Cucumber, Spinach, Carrot, Eggplant, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Fenugreek, Gourds, Lettuce, Radish, Mint, Coriander, Turnip, Beans
  • Nuts (Walnuts, Almonds, Pine Nuts, Pistachios, Peanuts)
  • Livestock (Buffalo, Cow, Yak, Sheep, Goat, Chicken, Camels)

Major Exports of Pakistan

  • Textiles (Clothing & Accessories, Linen for Bed Table & Kitchen, Winter Wear, Hosiery, Yarn)
  • Food (Rice, Wheat, Sugar, Meat, Seafood, Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts)
  • Exotic Leather Goods (Leather Garments & Accessories, Gloves, Handbags, Wallets, Purses, Sports Goods, Biker Gear, Footwear)
  • Sports Goods (Pakistan is producing 50% of the Footballs/Soccer in the World)
  • Chemicals
  • Carpets & Rugs
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Medical Equipment & Surgical Tools
  • Construction Material (Cement, Marble, Granite, Gypsum)
  • Rock Salt (Pink Himalayan slat is found ONLY in Pakistan)
  • Furniture
  • Gemstones and Jewellery
  • Services (Softwares, Offshore Workforce, Freelancing)
  • Manpower (Large number of people working abroad)

Food and Drinks of Pakistan

  • Pakistan is home of very diverse cultures and every culture has its own cuisine
  • Meat is Major part of the Pakistani Cuisine
  • Almost all traditional meals are eaten with some kind of Flatbread
  • Pakistani Cuisine is VERY SPICY and different herbs are also used
  • Chai Tea (Tea with Milk) & Soft Drinks are most common drinks
  • As a Muslim Country, Pork & Alcoholic Drinks are Banned in Pakistan
  • Here are some of most famous traditional dishes in Pakistan
    • Biryani
    • Pulao
    • Karrahi (Chicken, Mutton, Beef)
    • Haleem
    • Daal (Lentils)
    • Sabzi (Vegetables)
    • Halwa Puri (Sweet & Spicy Breakfast Specialty)
    • Paay (Feet Curry of Mutton or Beef)
    • Chany (Chickpeas)
    • Naan (Flatbread with Yeast)
    • Paratha (Roasted Flatbread)
    • Tikka & Kebab (BBQ)
    • Chappli Kebab
    • Bun Kebab / Shami Burger (Burger with Lentils & Egg)
    • Sajji (Whole Mutton or Chicken Roasted over Charcoal)
    • Saag (Mustard Leaves)
    • Fried Fish
  • Here are some of most famous Traditional Drinks in Pakistan
    • Chai (Tea with Milk)
    • Lassi (Butter Milk)
    • Fresh Juices & Milk Shakes (Sugarcane, Mango, Orange, Carrot, Apple, Banana, Dates, Strawberry, Falsa)
    • Doodh Soda (Milk & Soft Drink)
    • Shikanjabeen (Diluted Lemon Juice)
    • Rooh Afza / Jam e Shirin (Herabl Syrup)
    • Qahwa (Green Tea)
    • Kashmiri Chai (Special Milk Tea with Nuts)
  • Here are some of most famous Traditional Desserts in Pakistan
    • Halwa
    • Kheer
    • Custard
    • Sawiyan / Pheyonian
    • Qulfi
    • Falooda
    • Ras Malai
    • Sweets (Gulab Jamun, Sohan Halwa, Jalaibi, Barfi, Laddoo etc…)
  • Here are some of most famous Traditional Snacks in Pakistan
    • Samosa
    • Pakorra
    • Gol Gappay / Panipuri
    • Chana Chaat / Fruit Chaat
    • Dahi Barray
    • Kachori
    • Laddoo Paithee
    • Paparr
    • Nimco
    • Bakery Items (Cake Rusk, Naan Khataai, Baqar Khani)

Most Common Sports in Pakistan

  • Cricket (Whole Nation is Crazy about it)
  • Field Hockey (National Game of Pakistan)
  • Football / Soccer
  • Kabaddi
  • Wrestling (Local Style as well as WWE)
  • Billiard and Snooker
  • Luddo
  • Badminton
  • Video Gaming
  • Tennis
  • Body building
  • Weightlifting
  • Polo
  • Tent pegging
  • Motorsport
  • Mountaineering
  • Rope skipping
  • Squash
  • Table Tennis
  • Volleyball
  • Golf

National Symbols of Pakistan

  • National Flag of Pakistan:
  • National Colors of Pakistan: White & Green
  • National Seal (Logo / Emblem / Coat of Arms):
  • National Motto of Pakistan: Faith, Unity, Discipline
  • National Anthem of Pakistan:
  • National Currency of Pakistan: Pakistani Rupee (PKR)
  • National Day of Pakistan: 23rd March
  • National Language of Pakistan: Urdu
  • National Religion of Pakistan: Islam
  • National Dress of Pakistan: Shalwar Kameez
  • Father of the Nation: Quaid-e-Azam, Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah (25th December 1876 – 11th September 1948)
  • Mother of the Nation: Miss. Fatima Jinnah (31st July 1893 – 9th July 1967)
  • National Poet of Pakistan: Sir. Allama Muhammad Iqbal (9th November 1877 – 21st April 1938)
  • National Mountain of Pakistan: K2 (2nd Highest Mountain in World, 8611 meters)
  • National Sport of Pakistan: Field hockey
  • National Flower of Pakistan: Jasmine (Jasminum Officinale)
  • National Fruit of Pakistan: Mango
  • National Juice of Pakistan: Sugarcane Juice
  • National Vegetable of Pakistan: Okra / Ladies’ Fingers (Abelmoschus Esculentus)
  • National Tree of Pakistan: Himalayan Cedar (Cedrus Deodara)
  • National Animal of Pakistan: Markhor (Capra Falconeri)
  • National Bird of Pakistan: Chakor (Chukar Partridge)
  • State Bird of Pakistan: Peregrine Falcon (Falco Peregrinus)
  • National Predator of Pakistan: Snow Leopard (Panthera Uncia)
  • National Mammal of Pakistan: Indus River Dolphin / Blind Dolphin (Platanista Minor)
  • National Reptile of Pakistan: Indus Marsh Crocodile / Mugger
  • National Airline of Pakistan: Pakistan International Airlines (PIA)
  • National Document of Pakistan: Lahore Resolution (23rd March 1940)
  • National Mausoleum of Pakistan: Mazar-e-Quaid (Karachi)
  • National Monument of Pakistan: Pakistan Monument, Islamabad
  • National Tower of Pakistan: Minar-e-Pakistan, Lahore
  • National Library of Pakistan: National Library of Pakistan, Islamabad
  • National Mosque of Pakistan: Faisal Mosque, Islamabad
  • National River of Pakistan: Indus River
  • National Archives of Pakistan:

Miscellaneous Info About Pakistan

  • Currency Pakistani Rupee (₨) – PKR
  • Time Zone UTC +5 / GMT +5 (Called Pakistan Standard Time – PST)
  • Driving Side: Left
  • Calling Code: +92
  • Internet TLD .pk
  • Important Days:
    • Independence Day (got Independence from the United Kingdom): 14th August 1947
    • Pakistan Day (First Constitution Enforced): 23rd March 1956